Saturday, August 13, 2011

An Introduction to the Mysteries of Ground Radio

An Introduction to the Mysteries of Ground Radio

by Gerry Vassilatos
Ground Radio is a subject which has remained on the
periphery of engineering discussions for decades. It
has maintained its elusive and mysterious poise
because of fundamental anomalies observed when its
methods are utilized, anomalies which manifest when
signals are both transmitted and received directly
through the ground. The inability to adequately
address the associated anomalies has produced a
remarkable impasse among conventional engineers. Many
highly qualified such persons are quite sure that the
Ground Radio phenomenon is adequately explained
through classic theoretical propagation models.
Experimental findings however, have brought to our
attention several anomalous features of this form of
Radio propagation.

Only an extensive and deliberated exploration of
Ground Radio will prove our several discoveries in the
art. Rudimentary and inexpensive in requirement,
experiments with Ground Radio provide an endless
source of anomalies. Experimental investigations of
these methods may begin with as little equipment as a
shortwave receiver, a copper pipe, and a length of
wire. The rest remains in the strangely lost art of
interpretation. The accurate interpretation of the
findings derived through such experimentation requires
familiarity with the pertinent bibliography. We hope
that the reader is encouraged to duplicate and surpass
these methods, as those who do so will not be without
their due reward. The discovery of new and unfamiliar
phenomena can be yours...when you take the first step.


The metaphysical earth currents were both observed and
described in great detail by Fr. Athanasius Kircher.
His writings preserve an ancient knowledge which
concerned itself wholly with the vitality of the
earth. The metaphysical telluric currents were known
to permeate the world, the energies which mediating
vitality. Maps of telluric currents were the prized
possessions of geomancers, permitting the knowledge of
vitality control on earth. It is said that wars were
fought by the selective elimination or exaltation of
specific veinworks in the telluric circulatory system.
The science of Geomancy thus formed the mysterious
historical backdrop against which a wide variety of
natural observations were subsequently made.

With time, the experiential appreciation for the
metaphysical earth energies was systematically lost.
The more qualified scientific observers replaced their
sensitive experience of telluric energies with a
merely superficial observation of geoelectric
currents. This schism has provoked the controversial
thesis upon which our present discussion is therefore
based. While some will be defiantly confident that
experiential telluric energies are resolved into
geoelectrical currents, we remain just as adamant in
our absolute conviction that the experiential telluric
energies precede and define the observed geoelectric
patterns. This schism has not, and will never be
resolved. So long as there are those who insist on
observing the superficialities of natural phenomenon,
completely obsessed with the kinematics of otherwise
experience-filled phenomena, there will be a
scientific conflict.

The filtration of highly selected portions of natural
phenomena characterizes contemporary quantitative
science. Until the scientific community becomes
willing to admit the greater part of their experience,
all considerations of natural phenomena will remain
for them a blank wall of intensities and numerical
values. Ancient Science connected its pursuants with
an experience, one gained through direct physiological
contact with the telluric currents themselves. It is
in the active contact with these ground-derived
currents alone that we recognize the true and
fundamental continuum in which our world is set, an
expansive experience by which we access and learn the
ancient arcanum.

The discovery that various signal species could be
both transmitted and received directly through
grounded terminals, forms the fascinating subject
matter of a largely forgotten historical record. In
this regards, we find a technical bibliography replete
with remarkable instances of early successful
experimentation in the art of drawing power and
signals directly from the ground. Completely ignoring
the fact that a large bibliography of anomalies had
been compiled by research predecessors, engineers of
the time developed communications systems which relied
entirely on electrical currents. As a carrier of code
and voice, electricity was "reliable". But with
increasing engineering emphasis on electricity and
electrical technology, the subject of geomantic
energies was driven into forgetfulness. Thereafter,
those who confused geomantic energy with electrostatic
effects were the cause of the numerous controversies
by which Late Victorian Science is characterized;
endless confusions in terms and identifications.

When the subject of long-distance communications was
compelled to shift thematic emphasis away from the
vitalistic foundations, it lost touch with an energy
which did not cease exerting strong influences on the
developing electrical technology of the time period.
Only a few, now legendary researchers, continued the
geomantic tradition. From the very first moment in
which ground connections were established in a
telegraphic signalling line, inventors and operators
of electrical systems noticed anomalous energetic
behaviors in the ground. The very first attempts at
long distance telegraphy involved the burial of highly
insulated double lines (Morse and Vail). Upon first
closure of the telegraph key, the signalling
components became so thoroughly suffused with charge
that the exchange of signals became an impossibility.

In truth, the art of wired and wireless communication
began in a reawakened appreciation of geomancy and
geomantic energies. This remarkable reminder came
about with the replacement of the original 2-wire
telegraph line (Reusser, 1794) by the 1-wire method
(Aldini, 1803), the latter requiring far less wire and
several ground plate terminations. The telegraph
stations of Morse used grounded plates, a means by
which engineers imagined the "necessary return
current...through the ground". Wired code on a single
overhead wire was thus "matched" by an opposed ground
return of charge, a condition which fulfilled the
prevalent model of electrical closure.


As none of these researchers actually measured the
elusive "ground current", many engaged an imaginative
freeplay in the artistic description of the same.
Several patent drawings reveal a curiously geomantic
flair, the meandering "return currents" flowing over
land and stream to their terminals. Here we find
remarkable evidence that these inventors were in fact
engaging in a form of geomantic vision, describing an
entirely different and more agile energy species than
electrical current (Farmer, Ader, Frow). Toward the
peak successful operation of telegraph and telephone
systems, the proper placement of terminal plates was
an absolute requirement. As this art demanded special
ability, the first telegraph linesmen used the methods
familiar to dowsers. The very placement of ground
plates, poles, and junction boxes was, for these
linesmen, completely predicated on the strong presence
of upwelling energies from the earth. Empirical
evidence proved these methods superior to "resistance
surveying" in the placement of station plates and
other components.

Telegraph lines so constructed were possessed of a
noumenous and suffusive quality. Natural geomancers
had provided the means. Here was evidence that another
energetic stratum was governing the development and
limiting the establishment of long-distance electrical
communications systems. The subjective experience of
linesmen was ample indication that such a mysterious
energy stratum was indeed present and active. Thus,
the invasive energy demonstrated its ability to
enforce certain restrictions on the establishment and
operation of Telegraphy and Telephonic systems. The
communications technology, which engineers imagined to
be completely independent of natural agency, was being
subverted by an everpresent geomantic influence.

Besides the obvious geomantic incursions, those which
influenced the decisions of workmen and designers, the
energetic presence made itself known in several other
ways. Power literally appeared "from the ground" in
many stations, a condition which Alfred Vail reported
(1839). He found it necessary to progressively remove
batteries from the first long-distance telegraph line,
reporting this remarkable manifestation of energy to
his elder partner, Samuel Morse. Lines operated on an
energy which exceeded the battery supply, and
ground-connective communications systems were
especially prone to bizarre energy manifestations.

Hoping to save the finance of excessive wire line,
many telegraph systems implemented the discovery that
code could easily "pass through water". To this end,
engineers experimented with the use of widely
separated groundplates, a means which proved strangely
successful. Experiments with ground-conduction
established telegraphic contact through an isthmus
(Morse, 1842), through streams (Vail, 1843), wide
rivers (Lindsay, 1843), canals (Highton, 1852), across
a bay (Meucci, 1846), through the earth (Stubblefield,
1872), and between distant islands (Preece, 1880). An
accidental discovery proved that one longline system
continued operating with great strength of signal,
despite the fact that the line had been literally
broken in several places. The realization that code
signals could actually enter and traverse the ground
for several hundred yards, and then reenter a grounded
line, triggered a new revolution.

Thereafter, combined wired and wireless links formed
the greater portion of telegraph exchanges across the
miles of North American countryside. Ground plates
launched code signals into predetermined land tracts
and waterways, signals being conveyed along specific
subterranean routes. Signals passed "into and through
the ground" to each next ground plate of a series.
When reentering the next groundplate, signals
continued through the overhead lines to their
appointed destinations. Stations received very strong
signals in this method, signals with great clarity and
force. Here were the early beginnings of the
conduction wireless methods, and relied on the
mysterious nature of ground conduction and ground
energy for their successful operation.

It was clear to linesmen and operators that the signal
energy could not possibly be maintained over such long
ground and water conduction paths without
amplification. Some external agency was somehow
augmenting and modifying the applied signal impulses.
The anomalous functioning of these largescale regional
signalling systems proved again that the geomantic
agency was literally wending its way through the line
networks. Not every such line operated in this manner,
the geomantic currents selecting very specific paths
for its operation. This topographic selectivity hailed
attention back to the maps once treasured by
geomancers. The augmentation of applied electrical
energy was obvious. These specially placed telegraph
and telephone lines operated for years without
batteries at all. Station operators took this
phenomenon for granted. Despite the "long dead and
corroded Edison Cells", telegraph station operators
continued the powerful exchange of "fat blue and
sparking" signals for decades (Lehr).

Other researchers corroborated the fact that usable
amounts of current could actually be derived from the
ground, currents whose powerful displays permitted the
elimination of battery cups and generators. The
failure of all reductive electrical models to
satisfactorily address these energetic characteristics
became especially evident with the development of the
"earth batteries", an outgrowth of these telegraphic
observations (Bain, 1849). These simple material
composites, made to be buried in earth, produced
currents not explained through electrolytic action.
Small buried earth batteries developed sufficient
power to charge storage batteries. They were also
employed to provide telegraphic (Bryan, Cerpaux,
Dieckmann, Jacques, Bear), and later telephonic
systems (Stubblefield, Strong, Brown, Tomkins,
Lockwood) with uninterrupted operating power. Neither
decomposing nor failing with months of buried use, the
mysterious earth batteries contain an essential
mystery which electrodynamic models cannot adequately

Those who doubt these facts may attempt the simplest
of experiments. Place two identical copper rods into
the ground however distant your skepticism demands.
The ground can be dry. Connect a galvanometer to each
rod by means of thin wire. An anomalous positive
reading results. This simple fact illustrates the
concepts taught by Nathan Stubblefield, who stated
that earth batteries do not generate electricity: they
intercept and receive ground flowing telluric
currents. If you wish to find strong telluric currents
by this means, place one of your two ground rods into
a tree root. The galvanometer should be wired close to
this base. The other rod is wired and can be placed in
sequentially different spots. Readings can literally
"pin" the meter, holding it there for weeks.

Telluric incursives continued to "interrupt" all
electrical communications methods which employed the
ground as a medium of exchange. These incursives
revealed aspects of the geomantic nature as each new
technology was connected to the ground. The mere
appearance of additional power was greatly
outperformed when, just prior to the advent of
Telephony, a shortlived revolution swept the
Telegraphic World. Certain telegraph companies
replaced all of their electromagnetic systems with the
Chemical, or "Automatic Telegraph" of Alexander Bain
(1849). The Chemical Telegraph regime utilized the
electrosensitivity of special chemical papers to
register incoming signals. Code impulses made their
dark blue marks on the rolling strip of sensitive
paper, the task of decoding having thus been made
"automatic". Because of the low power requirements
typical to their method, the Automatic Telegraph lines
were successfully operated across much greater
distances than their electromagnetic counterparts.

From the very first, some such Chemical Telegraph
systems operated on ground power alone. Not only did
these systems produce strong signal markings in
complete absence of batteries, but partly coherent
signals spontaneously appeared in absence of operators
as well! The mystifying appearance of fragmentary
sentences and geometric patterns was continually
observed in idle Chemical Telegraph receivers, a
phenomenon which has been discussed in a former
treatise (Vril Compendium Vol. 3). Perceptive
investigators clearly perceived that incursions of
geomantic energy were dynamically modifying and
augmenting every ground application of electrical
energy. Such anomalous energy manifestations, which
often revealed a perplexing time-periodicity, found no
plausible explanation among the theoreticians.

With the introduction of Telephony, the use of simple
buried terminal plates was soon replaced by a great
number of special articulate ground components. Again
requiring geomantic sensitivity for their proper
ground placement and orientation, these remarkable
interleaved and multivented forms literally launched
and received signals along selective topographic
directions (Taylor and Muirhead, Lugo, Smith). Besides
those anomalous power observations in telegraphic and
telephonic systems, anomalous observations were noted
with the development of wireless communications. The
relevant bibliography is filled with instances of
geomantic power incursions in wireless systems. These
incursions, clearly understood by early wireless
pioneers as effects of the earth connection, made
their impact on the engineering community.


The late part of the Nineteenth Century was a rich and
productive time for the empirical researchers, those
who explored the deep mysteries of ground conduction
radio. Such investigation produced a new world of
possibilities in the Wireless Arts. Experimenters
found distinctive differences when varieties of
geometric shapes were simply buried, a series of
discoveries having no satisfactory conventional
explanation. A great many highly specialized ground
"antennas" were developed and patented during this
time period, a technology which provoked both
disbelief and criticism on numerous counts.

The very first vocal radio broadcast was engaged by
Nathan B. Stubblefield (1872). Mr. Stubblefield
employed special "earth cells" and long iron rods to
transmit strong vocal signals "with great clarity".
These signals traversed a mile or more of ground, a
coordinated conduction wireless system providing
telephone service for a hardworking farm community.
The Stubblefield Radio Method represents an essential
technological mystery. His "earth cells" never wore
out, never produced heat in their telephonic
components, and provided "signal ready" power at any
given instant of the day. Being neither activated or
assisted by additional battery power, the system was
fully operational around the clock.

Later critics attempted the reduction of the
Stubblefield Radio System to mere "subsoil conduction"
mode of transmission, but remain completely unable to
reproduce the performance to this day. Mr.
Stubblefield repeatedly stated confidence in the fact
that his Radio System was performing an act of
modulation, not a transmission of signal power. The
preexisting "electrical waves in the earth", he firmly
stated, were the real energy carriers for his Wireless
Telephone Exchange. The special "earth cells" were
connective terminals, not power antennas; a means by
which direct connection with the geomantic energy
stratum was obtained.

In an entirely different regime of exploration, a
regime having nothing whatsoever to do with waveradio
energies, Dr. Nikola Tesla directed the construction
of a massive radiating structure on the northshore of
Long Island. His previous years of experience taught
him the secrets concerning radiant energy and its
effective propagation through the air and space (1892
to 1900). Understanding the means by which radiant
energy may be more effectively beamed down through the
ground, Dr. Tesla established the magnificent
Wardenclyffe Station (1901). Tesla intended
Wardenclyffe to be the first of a series, stations for
the subterranean beam transmission of radiant energy.
Propagation of very large diameter radiant energy
beams had been found more effective for given power
purposes, when conducted through solid rock. Tesla
found that the earth was transparent to these
penetrating straightline beams, and planned the use of
deeply imbedded ground terminals in order to direct
and launch his special radiant energy.

Dr. Tesla took special pains to establish the
extensive underground conducting system in order "to
get a grip of the earth". This most complex
construction operation, necessarily executed long
before the great tower was erected, took place below
the Power Broadcast Station. Tesla stated that this
was the most difficult part of his construction
operation at Wardenclyffe, the drilling of long iron
pipes having first been driven down to more than 300
feet into the foundation rock. At a depth of 120 feet,
Tesla excavated several radiating shafts, long
hallways whose internal walls were covered with pitch
and surrounded with iron pipeworks. These shafts
extended outward at this horizontal depth for several
hundred feet in all directions, a formidable ground
projector. Beneath the central chambers of this
Magnifying Transmitter, the deeply embedded terminals
actually formed the primary beaming structure; a
bizarre conception which was literally rediscovered in
legal documents provided by Mr. Leland Anderson, and
has since been experimentally verified by Eric

Fr. Josef Murgas (1906) produced a remarkable series
of articulated monopole terminals. These coaxial coil
monopoles were deeply drilled pipes, filled with
mineral oil and activated by radioimpulses. With these
designs, Fr. Murgas exchanged extremely powerful and
static-free signals to great distances with very
little applied power. The later proliferation of
ground aerial designs included double grounded arches
(Tesla, Collins, Ducretet, Musits, Pickard),
underwater and underground coils (Jones), underground
loops (Beakes), "bent-L" inversions (Appleby, Knoll),
and underground channel-loops (Hanson). Of these
buried ground systems, none were as prolific as those
developed by James Harris Rogers (1913). Most properly
categorized as buried dipoles, Rogers antennas rested
across the subsurface horizon of the ground, and were
relatively easy to establish.

Desirous of creating VLF and ELF transmission sites
for oceangoing surface and submerged fleet vessels,
ground antenna designers attracted the attentions of
the NRL and other military research laboratories. In
the effort to establish failsafe communications
between command centers and distant fleet, ground
surface, or submerged forces, military engineers
explored both Rogers buried antennas and Murgas
drilled monopoles. To the thrift-minded military
engineers, the buried Rogers Antennas were more
accessible than the more effective and world
permeating Murgas designs. Placed into long plowed
furrows, the various Rogers antennas provided
clarified signals. Compared with the large overhead
aerials of other designers, Rogers buried antennas
performed in a remarkably constant and dependable
manner. Producing strong signals, of both greatly
depressed static and equivalent reduced distortion
levels, the Rogers designs were prized by Naval Radio

Rogers buried antennas were buried dipoles, a method
application to an old design. Because the Rogers
Antenna series were buried dipoles, their performance
theoretically completely depended upon their compass
orientations. The polarization of transmitted or
received signals necessitated that Rogers Antennas be
properly placed in the ground with respect to compass
bearings, a restriction nonexistent with the superior
Murgas Monopoles. But Rogers Antennas were admirably
suited to the developing Naval Radio hardware. Driven
by sinewave generators, rather than Teslian aether
pulses, the Rogers designs operated in the Hertzian
wave mode adequately enough to win military support.
Few military experts bothered to recall that these
designs were all purloined from directly from the
Tesla patents, a fact which the genteel Tesla never
bothered to cite.

Periodically classified and declassified, the Rogers
designs and their modifications have formed the core
of the military VLF and ELF communications arsenal.
But most of the researchers instinctively sought out
those monopoles which Fr. Murgas developed, and which
the military had overlooked. Throughout the early part
of the Twentieth Century, a great variety of ground
antennas made their sudden appearance in the
commercial radio market. Experimenters everywhere were
discovering that different shapes and materials were
capable of providing extraordinarily strong radio
transmissions and receptions when simply buried.


Attempts of devising newer and more effective ground
antenna designs provoked several intriguing
explorations. The most amazing discoveries included
those made with relatively small buried metal forms.
Radio rules changed completely when buried antenna
were employed, the complete elimination of Hertzian
dimension restrictions being the first observation.
Unlike their aerial counterparts, buried terminals
were not bound by those exacting requirements of
wavelength. One did not require lateral dimensions
equal to the normal shortwave aerial yardage, the
first feature recognized by radio amateurs.

It was indeed during this time period that the
customary use of old iron radiators and large metal
bedsprings, scrap metal surplus, became an
experimental vogue with radio amateurs. These buried,
highly articulated iron forms, provided powerful
evidence that the ground antenna principle actually
worked. In the classic models, the burial of any
aerial structure represented immersion in a conductive
medium. The burial of conductors in the ground was
viewed as reduction to a uniform, neutral electrical
gradient. This condition sufficiently neutralized all
of the geometric differences within an isoelectric
horizon. Electrodynamic theory stated that any buried
metal composite, however "variegated" or "articulated"
in form, would simply behave as a "lumped" resistance.

While the use of variegated antennas posed no threat
to the existing paradigm, academicians considered the
concept of buried variegated antennas a theoretical
impossibility. Indeed, those who examined ground
aerial patents found completely problematic the notion
that highly variegated geometric structures could
demonstrate differing degrees of transmissive or
receptive advantage. Electrical engineers insisted
that the net surface areas of these buried
"articulate" forms alone determined their resultant
excessive performance. In this consideration, material
composition did not matter. Conductivity was the prime
factor. Differing only in their various surface areas,
the only theoretical differences among buried
geometries, in addition to those of mere surface area,
were thought to be factors of electrolytic corrosion.
The more pitted the ground contact surface, the more
likely a buried object would become better conductive
to signals. The microsurficial increase of surface
contact through corrosive pitting was called to
explain the "additional gain".

Since the electrical merits of buried materials were
supposedly the simple result of surface area and the
effectively moved electrical volume, the result of
this inherent surface area, no special discovery was
acknowledged among the authorities. But empirical
determinations proved that different geometric shapes
and (more unbelievably) different material composites,
actually did effect an enhanced "launching" of
radiosignals far in excess of their calculated surface
area. Solid plates of calculated equivalent surface
did not perform as magnificently as the buried
radiators or bedsprings.

he articulated exposure for potential conduction
increasing to or from the surrounding ground.

But empirical research consistently overturned each of
the theoretical contentions, proving by incontestable
demonstration the superior signalling characteristics
of articulate ground terminals. Anomalous signal
strengths were both transmitted from and received
through ground transmitting systems far in excess of
intensities or topographic distances declared possible
by theory. This was particularly true when the ground
transmitting antennas were powered by spark-generated,
asymmetric impulse currents. Signals were somehow
being "collimated and constricted" within the ground
proper. This constrictive action did not explain all
of the observed signal intensities. Evidence had again
suggested that the ground was "leaking" a
non-electrical component up into both the electrical
systems and their emerging signals.

In fact, several widely advertised and highly
successful designs included the "Yale Ground Hog", the
"Subtenna", the "Aeroliminator", and the "Subaerial".
These few representatives demonstrated the superiority
of ground antennas, a validity which literally emptied
the stock rooms of each ground antenna distributor.
Dr. F. L. Satterlee, an X-Ray specialist, developed
several "tuned ground" radio receivers. Implemented by
The Moon Radio Company, these radiosets placed their
performance boasts on a remarkable "antenna-free"
operation. The principle advantage of these ground
antennas was their static-eliminating nature. The ease
of their installation and maintenance combined great
signalling efficiency. Several of the commercial units
needed only to be connected with a cold water pipe,
their powerful and "static-free" reception being
unequalled by the more conventional "aerial
receivers". Additionally, waveradio receivers produced
by The Moon Radio Company operated during normally
impossible meteorological and geophysical conditions;
a condition well described by Nikola Tesla. A great
many inventors continued producing truly amazing
diversity in the "ground antenna" format. Throughout
this time of amazing and anomalous discoveries, the
empirical method led the way.


It had been clearly observed by a number of
experimenters that the environment exerted strong and
dynamic action on transmitter signals. It was long
known that this mysterious energy species could
actively charge ground-connected radio systems in
absence of applied power, the early experiments of
Loomis having established this principle (1862). This
agency was very obviously possessed of an inherently
superior articulate nature, being able to distinguish
and energize buried material composites and varied
geometric forms. In addition, the energetic ground
agency seemed able to selectively seek out, constrict
into, and intensify the incoming signal power of
distant stations. There were obviously other
influences which determined the nature of
ground-traversing signals.

Experimenters realized that these effects differed
with both the methods used in obtaining the spark
energy, the manner in which disturbances were launched
into the environment, the grounds into which signals
were launched, and the specific directions along which
they were launched. The spark applications of small
experimental radiotransmitters produced signals of
unexpected large volume at great distances, empirical
evidence of an unexplained signal "amplifier" in the
natural environment (Appleton and Barnett). VLF
amplification effects had been empirically recognized
among radio engineers on both sides of the Atlantic.
In fact, the very first historical Transatlantic
Signals of Marconi were problematic from every
engineering standpoint. The calculated losses,
theoretically expected of these signals, were far too
great to account for his first claimed successes
(1901). This was a fact which provoked many to doubt
and criticize Marconi’s claims in the venture. Later
repeatable demonstrations of the VLF amplification
effect evoked few suggested explanations from the
engineering community.

The concept that signals could acquire additional
energy from an unacknowledged geomantic source was not
readily received by the academic community. Some
experimenters initiated dialogue on the possible gain
of signals which had traversed the geomagnetic field
(Prentice). These gains were not the simple result of
"standing waves", nor the result of Hall Effect
intensifications provoked by launching signals across
the geomagnetic field. The perplexing effect was noted
across the entire radiofrequency spectrum, from VLF
radiotelegraphic to shortwave radiotelephone services.
Unlike the identical phenomena which took place in
wired telegraph and telephone lines, these effects
were taking place in complete absence of wire. But
what dynamic agency was literally magnifying each
relatively small initial signal?

With the installation of multiple Marconi
Transatlantic Stations, it quickly became known that
transoceanic VLF magnification phenomena were only
obtained when signals were launched along highly
specific "launch paths". Conformity with these "launch
paths" produced undistorted signals of unexpected
great power and presence. VLF signals which were not
applied to the special launchpaths, were simply lost
in transit. The Marconi World Radio Circuit relied
these very obvious environmental controls, but it was
quite impossible for engineers to follow the exact
pathways of these suboceanic signals. It was first
thought that the phenomenon had much to do with the
submarine ground itself. By assuming the existence of
special highly conductive marine geostrata, it was
imagined that a simple geological survey could codify
the selection of Marconi Station sites.

But no such geological formula or pattern was ever
found, to the great consternation of engineers and
theoreticians alike. Directed along identical
suboceanic geostrata, the very same VLF signals
encountered unexpected and unexplained high signal
resistivity; a frightful realization for those whose
labor was expended in the building of several Marconi
Stations. What was the strange "absorptive potential"
by which a launched signal could simply be drawn
across a specific launchpath? If not in the material
strata of submarine geology, where then was this
mysterious "absorptive potential" contained?

Several sites were quietly abandoned by the Marconi
Company, the matter being privately considered for
very obvious business reasons. The prospect of
statistical failure in the "scientific" selection of
VLF launchpaths displeased Marconi greatly. The use of
dowsing methods would be very "bad for business" if
the fact became known to the scientific community at
large. These factors eventually drove Marconi deeper
into a study of shortwave aerial phenomena. Other
radio station engineers found it necessary to select
station sites through "alternative" or "geomantic"
means. This renewed awareness of geomantic energy, as
well as the role of special points and pathways in
effecting long distance communications, provoked a
hostile and derisive reaction among conventional


The advent of shortwave radio systems however,
produced intriguing anomalies, which found neither
immediate theoretical models nor solutions. Unable to
account for the divergent signal strengths noted
between separate aerial or ground contacts,
fact-finding empirical research was again engaged. The
models which theoreticians developed postulated that a
loosely linked "skywave" and "groundwave" were
responsible for the anomalous reception effects. In
this analysis of waveradio transmitters, a conduction
wavesignal "through the ground" was selectively either
neutralized or intensified by an aerial signal
"through the sky" (Breit and Tuve).

With the newly discovered ionized atmospheric layer
neatly providing "skipping" reflectivity for
transmissions, the model was complete. Accordingly,
the proper phasing of skipped skywaves and groundwaves
produced resultant signals of unusual strength.
Improper phasing produced received signals were weak
or even absent. It was then easy to comprehend the
varying nature of shortwave signals whenever
encountered. One could find reasonable explanation for
variable signal strengths throughout the day, month,
and year. "Skipping" skywaves met with continuous
groundwaves to produce all of the observed signal
receptions. Phase shifting explained all of these
variations. Or did it?

The use of very long, close-ground antennas was early
implemented by those who sought the development of
special aerial-ground hybrid antennas. The "double
ground" aerial employed an elevated line with grounded
ends. This format was limited by its orientation
requirements, often acting as an excellent directional
detector of distant stations. Extremely low aerials
were developed and used in 1911 (Kiebitz), often
extending to nearly 1000 feet in length and being
poised to within a yard of ground level. In 1918, a
similar system (A. Hall) placed 2700 feet of insulated
cable along the ground surface, and claimed excellent
reception characteristics.

The famed "Beverage Antenna" (patent 1,381,089), was
the result of experiments with several thousand
straight feet of wiring on tall insulating posts, a
design which attracted the fortune-aimed attentions of
RCA. Wishing to break the existing market on special
beam aerials, this design formed the means by which
Marconi monopolies on the "bent-L" aerials were
broken. The receptive clarity of this design increased
with proximity to ground. RCA could not infringe on
the Rogers designs, or those of others, whose buried
ground antennas produced better signal strength.

These horizon-hugging aerials provoked controversy
because of their supposed necessary "management" of a
mixed sky and ground wave complex. Experiment proved
that increasing elevations of the Beverage Antenna
resulted in a pure and noisy skywave signal, with the
greatest signal intensities being derived with the
line placed as close to ground surface as possible. In
some cases, these ground-parallel aerials were poised
on insulators 12 foot or less for best effect. Being
the design which represents the theoretical midpoint,
between the buried Rogers dipole and the Marconi
"bent-L", the Beverage Antenna reveals that ground
currents and ground signals are indeed distinct in
origin and species. These results helped to convince
many that the proposed "nearzone-farzone" radio
principles were absolutely mistaken. In fact, a
special theory was developed to "explain" the superior
operation of the Beverage Aerial. [All of these
patents and articles are found in Vril Compendium
Volumes 9 and 10].

A great many popular radio magazine articles were
devoted to the unusual reception of signals through
the ground alone (Volume 8, Vril Compendium). To the
amateur experimenters of the time, it was all too
apparent that the theoretical assessments lacked
reality. Those who studied radio propagation phenomena
for military applications could not account for the
fact that far too powerful ground signals continued
with increasing range from their sourcepoint. By
comparison, their aerial signal counterparts were far
too weakened by the journey. Experimenters found that
the "skywave-groundwave" model did not explain the
continued magnification of signals "received through
the ground". When compared to signals "received
through the air", the ground signals were persistently
more powerful, and far less eroded by static.

Of the many energetic interactions occurring in and
among spark discharges, Hertz chose but two for
analysis (1887). Convention has agreeably restricted
its considerations to the same, affirming that only
two fields of influence make themselves manifest at
close distances from a spark. The induction field, and
the "radiowave field". Induction field effects rapidly
fall away with the inverse square of distance from a
spark center. The "true radio energy" is that wave
energy which loses intensity with the inverse distance
from a spark center. This difference of intensity with
distance from the spark center defines the radiofield.
Radio texts described the "nearzone" (induction field)
and the "farzone" (radiofield). Patent examiners used
this model to eliminate all but the Marconi claims for
wireless transmission of signals, a tragic reduction.
Far more important demonstrations proved the
superiority of geomantic radio principles. Certain
highly qualified experimenters disagreed with the
simplistic Hertzian view, and contradicted the views
of a growing mainstream (Stubblefield, Tesla, Massey,

Some thought that the induction field was the source
of the unusual ground signals, the electrostatic
influence which induced electron oscillations in the
rock immediately beneath transmitter towers. Much
improved ground configurations were thought to provide
additional power to these relatively weak induction
oscillations. Large area copper screens or grids were
pre-buried long before transmitting towers or aerials
were erected. These conductive screens extended
outward from the central transmitting axis for several
hundred yards in some instances. Thus directly
applied, ground currents were given enormous impulse,
a possible reason for the strong and predominating
reception of local stations in neighborhood receivers.
Theoretically, these induction sources were incapable
of propagating beyond one quarter of a wavelength from
their tower centers. Deep VLF ground currents of 10
kilocycles were therefore not to be received beyond 15
kilometers from their source. The transmission of 3
megacycle signals would, according to these
expectations, produce ground currents undetected
beyond 250 feet from their source.

These "nearzone-farzone" models did not explain the
true signal strength received through ground antennas.
Why for example, could VLF signals be received from
distances much further than 10,000 miles from their
aerial gantries? Why were shortwave signals routinely
received from distances surpassing 15,000 miles?
Nevertheless, the ground antenna made such signal
reception possible. One may yet demonstrate these
dynamics with rudimentary ground rod antennas, a
technique which will shortly be described. The
"nearzone-farzone" model does not explain why VLF
signals are only received along specific constrictive
paths, a mystery which deepens when it is realized
that such conductive ground paths are never found
along strictly geodesic sections. Field distribution
experiments show the meandering nature of VLF signals
across regions of ground, a fact which correlates
their much-amplified propagation with geomantic
current paths.

There were, in addition, several remarkable reversals
of these same theoretical expectations. Why, across
certain locales, was it impossible to receive the
powerful shortwave transmissions of a station some
several hundred yards away in plain sight? "Radio
blindspots" could not be explained on the basis of
earth conductivity or geophysical characteristics
alone. These glaring propagation discrepancies posed
neither problem nor threat to the empirical
researchers, who formulated their own naturally
accurate models. The anomalous "blindspots" and "freak
transmissions" which the routinely observed, were
exceptions to the theoretical models. Such notable and
unexplainable instances, while continuing to plague
the modelmakers, provoked far too little academic
interest (Hollingworth, Quack).

This experimental example offered a most startling
clue to the mode of transmission actually responsible
for the operation of buried antenna designs. The
"skywave-groundwave" model presupposes that a singular
radiosource will produce a singular radiating wave,
half of the wave propagating through an aerial route,
the other half being immersed in ground. Passage
through the atmospheric route gathers static
signatures and other distortions which are supposedly
induced throughout the wavefront. This aerial noise is
transferred and distributed throughout the advancing
wavefront. Being absolutely tied to its aerial
portion, the ground wave of any signal must therefore
contain each acquired noise signature. The same holds
true when the ground signal acquires static and
distortions along its earthen propagation path. Then,
the aerial portion receives new static signatures as a
coequal distribution from the ground up. But all too
many occasions prove the absolute contradiction of
this model, and ground antennas provided the
incontrovertible evidence.

Buried terminals gave the clearest proof that aerial
signals and ground signals were of completely
different origin, those of the ground having the most
obvious source in a powerful autodynamic matrix.
Aerial waves were so obviously dissolved and
"digested" in transit from their distant sources,
while ground currents often demonstrated anomalous
intensification in transit. It was furthermore quite
obvious that electrical currents were not responsible
for the ground currents beyond the theoretical
quarterwave limits. Signals received through the
ground were clarified and strong, even when aerial
sampling proved that there should be only a static
"hiss". Experiments have shown that the sometimes
"wavering" behavior of ground received signals are the
result of completely different origins, a dynamic
response to completely distinct causes.

Added articulate dimensions made their appearance in a
regime of improved ground antennas. Some designs
employed chemical saturations to produce greatly
clarified and intensified signals. The revolutionary
approach began as a chemical treatment to existing
ground terminals, a treatment giving superior
empirical results. Chemically treated terminals
brought a complete eradication of static. The chemical
of choice for these "treatments" was copper sulfate,
the watery solution being liberally poured upon the
buried terminal until the soil became a slurry.
Allowed to dry out, these terminals displayed their
enormously improved outputs. In other such
experimental arrangements, copper sulfate solution was
placed in a large porous cup. Contact was made with
the solution with a metal rod. This design completely
eliminated common static and other crackling noises, a
significant improvement which also provided new
insight into the nature of ground signals themselves.

The performances of chemically treated ground antennas
was not well comprehended, it being simply assumed
that the earth-permeating solutions projected a
conductive horizon beyond the antenna itself. Poured
into the ground and allowed to dry in situ, such
solutions were thought to extend a wonderfully
articulate matrix of "fingerlets" beyond the metallic
antenna framework. Crystalline, complex, and replete
with dendritic projections, such arrangements became
‘woven into the earth". How did such an underground
crystalline complex manage to multiply signal
conductivity, while depressing all of the expected
levels of static? Ensheathing the metallic framework,
the crystallized solution represented a non-conductive
envelope. How conductive was the crystallized "matrix"
at all? Electrically unresponsive in its dried
crystalline form, any such copper sulfate sheath
should have blocked the entrance of all purely
electrical currents. What carrier was then delivering
its obviously improved signals?

This case study was completely corroborated in the
simpler instance of an insulator-ensheathed copper
rod, where clarified signals of great strength
continued to be received in obvious absence of the
electrical carriers (Lehr, Theroux). Examples such as
these actually challenge common notions concerning the
nature of ground signals, obviously not the result of
electrical waves at all. When compared with the
accompanying aerial signals, a contradiction in
theoretical prediction was obtained. Aerial signals
would prove to be replete with static signatures. Were
the skywave and groundwave each coequals, linked
energetic expulsions from a common source, then each
should have delivered the identical static events. But
the addition of chemical solutions to the ground
amplified and clarified the incoming signals, proving
that ground signals are of an entirely different class
and species of signal...having nothing to do with
their aerial mirror-partners. How then did the
addition of an electrically non-conductive crystalline
matrix actually produce better reception through the
ground antenna?


The exchange between electrical signals and geomantic
currents produced remarkable transformations, energy
exchanges yet requiring exhaustive study. The manner
in which articulate messages actively relate with
their electrical carriers is improperly understood. In
the biodynamic model, intelligent expressions
constrict toward the center core of their carrier
streams, becoming a tight thready current. The
electrical carrier streams themselves expand away from
this central thready core, losing integrity with
distance. It was well known that certain geomantically
densified regions were notorious eradicators of
electrical signals, the legendary "blindspots" which
characterized certain subequatorial districts. In
these biologically active zones, where jungle growth
was most highly accelerated, radio signals encountered
impossible distortions and indefinable interruptive

The significant distinctions of ground-derived
currents from electrostatic or electrical currents
required analytical methods not willingly engaged by
the convention. Nevertheless, the incursions of
unknown or forgotten energy strata refused to
disappear. These manifestations, which became
complicated with electrical applications, made their
presence continually known. These pure geomantic
currents possessed distinctly biological attributes of
catabolic growth. Geomantic energy perpetually
overpowered and dissolved every electrical application
into the ground (catabolic reaction), while
automagnifying its own potential (growth behavior)
against the invasive electricity (immune response). In
this process, communications signals were very
apparently amplified. The bizarre amplifications most
occurred when signals traversed regions of high
geomantic current densities. This is why so many
experimenters observed the topographically determined
signal magnifications across specific locales.

In 1904, one experimenter rediscovered that the
bioactivity of thriving trees can provide an
astounding source of radiosignals, a method referred
to as "floraphony". When connected to specific spots
on tree trunks, the use of a simple nail probe
resulted in the anomalous powerful reception of
radiosignals from 18,000 miles distance (Squier).
Indeed, the interactive relationship between
electrical and geomantic energies has remained
singularly mysterious. For those who do not comprehend
the fundamental differences and distinctions between
the energies involved, only the futile shuffling and
reshuffling of the "four forces" remains: an academic
card game which, very unfortunately, will never
produce a completely satisfying explanation. The
associated list of anomalies continues to assert its
presence, one which manages to topple the house of
cards with every new deal.

The general social lack of sensitivity to bioenergies
has contributed to the malaise of the scientific
research community, a malaise which motivated
Eighteenth Century experimenters to forsake their
roots in Vitalism. The unfortunate consequent fixation
on the discovery of currents and energetic influences,
abnormal to the bionatural environment, has enslaved
civilized humanity to an inferior technology, a
degenerate mindstate, and a completely irrelevant
world model. The interaction between geomantic and
electrostatic current is the result of antagonism
between two completely opposed species. Geomantic
currents are far more powerful in their technological
potentials, an energetic foundation which sensitives
have long anticipated. The accumulation of phenomena,
by which geomantic energies are transformed into the
utilitarian needs of our world, are all that is
lacking in this regard.

By far not confined to qualitative methods, geomantic
energy was quantitatively found to be possessed of
biological characteristics not normally attributed to
either electrostatic fields or electrical currents.
From archane times, geomantic currents were known to
flow through the ground in meandering pathways. The
geomantic matching of large VLF aerials became common
practice for the launching of signals along the
mysterious magnifying paths, paths which meandered and
"wandered" across continental topographies. The
veinlike "woivres", formerly identified and mapped by
medieval geomancers, were associated with uncertain
geophysical associations (Charpentier).

Direct connection with aerial, elemental, and
ground-sourced energies produced a wide range of
otherwise unexplained effects. These effects were
repeatedly reproduced in apparatus requiring only
monopolar ground terminals and variable tuning
capacitors. The discoveries made by the Chemical
Telegraph proved that the ground emergent energy
actively organizes the chaos of sensitive emulsions
into distinct patterns. These mystifying patterns and
hunting fragmentary messages, revealed the literal
"dark structure" of the ground, a structure which
completely dominated every ground-launched electrical
signal. The geomantic structure ruled and governed
every wired, ground-wired, or radio signal which
electrotechnology had applied to the ground. Signals
were shunted, interrupted, magnified, reduced,
constricted, redirected, divided, and recombined as
each encountered the geomantic structure. The
distinctly biological nature of the geomantic
structure was thus clearly revealed. It is the same
structure which ancient geomancers saw in the pure
mode, a radiant and multicrystalline form which
permeates and sustains the geological matter of earth.
Fluidic streams form the facets of this black radiant
structure, the "geomantic" currents of which we have

Explorations of the pure geomantic energies required
very simple equipment. Researchers found it possible
to extract enormously potent geomantic currents.
Employing little more than a grounded rod or plate,
and in the complete absence of additional (electrical)
energy, geomantic energy was drawn up to the surface
and selectively entuned. The grounded instruments used
in these wonderful explorations were the simple and
familiar diagnostic tools of the telegraphic and
telephonic engineers: Wheatstone Bridges, decade
resistors, and variable capacitance batteries. The
strange and cyclic activation of chemical telegraphs
was tested and proven, the results mystifying. When
these components were connected to one or more buried
plates, the apparatus became strangely charged with a
neutral energy. The Patent Archive is pleasantly
"interrupted" with the occasional exceptions provided
by these research purists, who insisted that geomantic
potentials were far more potent and capable than
electrical energy.

Those ground-oriented systems, which derive their
operative energy directly from articulate environment,
have experimentally proven their worth. Reproductions
of a great many such devices has produced the
surprising success by which we have experienced a
personal Scientific Renaissance. Geomantic energy is
capable of marking sensitive chemical papers and
plates (Bain, Edison), of stimulating auric emissions
from elements and chemicals (Reichenbach), of marking
photographic plates (Dobler), of stimulating plant
growth (White), of vivifying otherwise incapacitated
patients (Abrams), of impressing and modifying
sensitive crystallization processes (Kolisko), is able
to seek and reveal deeply buried ore bodies (Drown,
Rogers), and is capable of more astounding displays.
Its preeminent potentials dwarf those achieved through
the use of electrical charge.

Demonstrating a distinct bioaffinity, geomantic
currents evidence selective preference for biological
matter and for bioorganisms (White, Abrams, Lahovsky).
Possessing articulate "behavior", whose definition
exceeds that crude behavior of electrical currents,
geomantic currents are able to selectively seek and
locate specific widely distributed tuning targets with
complete precision. Non-inertial, and characterized by
innate properties which may only be termed
"biological", geomantic currents represent an
energetic stratum at the most fundamental level. The
world foundation. Was it any wonder that ground
antennas performed in excess of all the electrodynamic


Discovered during the years when the communications
sciences of Telegraphy, Telephony, Conduction
Wireless, and Aerial Wireless were being developed,
the isolation and implementation of Geomantic Energy
has founded the core of a new Science. Having
thoroughly accepted the objective existence of
Geomantic Currents, the Radionists extended the known
list of attributes and potentials germane to these
energetic species. Radionists developed instruments,
methods, and technologies beyond the expected
conventional limits.

Their diagnostic instruments become recognized as
"tuners" or "filters" of the geomantic currents. With
refined entunement components, the effects became more
pronounced and defined. The now familiar use of
resistance or capacitance bridges in Radionic
Technology has not been significantly changed since
the days of telegraph line diagnostic instruments.
Considered to be "electrically dead" by other
academes, and therefore supposedly incapable of
dynamic activity, the diagnostic apparatus of
Radionists were derided by those who refused the
acceptance of vitalistic energy on conditions of
personal prejudice alone. But the natural phenomenon
defied the edicts of those who refused to know.
Radionically entuned radio receivers became enormously
powerful sites into which impossibly distant signals
of exceedingly weak intensities simply pour. To
experience the numerous phenomena typical for
reception through ground antennas is to experience the
technically "impossible".

Utilized in a great variety of investigative purposes,
the acquisition of geomantic energies was fortunately
chronicled in a great number of patents and articles.
Radionists discovered that Geomantic energy is
neutral, being possessed of an ability to modify and
organize chemically chaotic systems (Littlefield,
Morley-Martin, Kolisko). Pure geomantic energy
articulates and transforms mineral solutions into
prebiological organizations (Crosse, Bastian, Reich).
The characteristic which draws geomantic currents into
bioorganisms has been explored for use as a
therapeutic stimulant (White, Drown). Greatly
increased vitality is the result of exposures to these
ground derived currents, an echoing reminder of truths
early discovered by Mesmer and Galvani.

Ground derived energies were used in demonstration of
agricultural stimulation (White, Lakhovsky), sensitive
medical diagnosis (White, Abrams, Hieronymus), medical
therapies (White, Mellon, Drown), anatomical scanning
(Drown, DelaWarr), wireless biological communications
(Abrams, Hieronymus, Drown), chemical reactivity
(Kolisko), power acquisition (Stubblefield, Strong,
Brown, Tomkins, Lockwood, Prentice), meteorological
modification (Baigorri), remote sensing and surveying
(Beasse, Glazewski, Billington, Ash, Rogers, Moray,
Maby, Drown), and mineral prospecting (Beasse, Rogers,
Drown). Despite these profound discoveries, the
widescale acceptance of geomantic energy or geomantic
phenomena was methodically shunned and eliminated from
the academic dogma.

Despite the vindictive treatment, that displayed in
the purgative fury of several national agencies, the
legendary Radionists developed a wondrous new
technology which yet holds the future survival of
humanity. This superlative Radionic Technology,
capable of stimulating and engaging the very deepest
of human potentials, has neither been glimpsed or
considered since Medieval times. In the secrets of
Radionic Science are the means by which the very
deepest dreams and desires of humanity find
technological expression. Implementing pure geomantic
energies, Radionic Instrumentalities operate at the
very level from which dreams and desires emerge.

With the energies obtained up from the ground, we have
discovered a sequence of distinct, irreducible, and
articulate attributes, to which both our thoughts and
efforts have been continually directed. The all too
numerous experiments which Borderland Sciences
researchers have conducted remain forever framed in
this biodynamic perspective. With each attempt at
duplicating the supposed fraudulent claims of our
qualitatively inclined predecessors, we continue to
rediscover spectacular anomalies. Providing us with a
continual stream of scientific epiphanies, we have
enjoyed remarkable success. Moving in and among such
strange scientific topics, you may also venture among
deep roadways untravelled by most. In truth, these
deepest of studies prove the existence of a
superlative visionary world-reality, one whose
thralldom society must again admit.

Coupled with the most elementary of ground antennas,
any ordinary shortwave receiver becomes a powerful
diagnostic tool. With very simple equipment, one
obtains a glowing window on the innermost world
processes whose biodynamic activities rule our very
being. The diagnostic use of ground radio antennas,
has permitted the acquisition of wonderful and
mind-elevating secrets. One continually learns the
lost details inherent in our throbbing world. The
geomantic structure, whose pulsing streams and ebbing
tides govern our consciousness, is suddenly revealed
through the turn of a radio dial. Unreconciled audio
"observations" provide compelling evidence that ours
is a world alive, whose meandering flowlines display
both emotive reactions and intelligent behavior.
Careful interpretation of ground radio phenomena has
permitted us to add new details to the evergrowing
biodynamic world thesis.

Indeed, with every experiment we have performed, there
is a vast and oceanic flood of new facts and equally
new associations. It is with these revelations we find
ourselves wonderfully occupied. Now comprising a
formidable and growing treasury, we recognize that the
duplication of such past methodologies well serves our
willingness to seek. Ground-connected shortwave
receivers are radionic interaction chambers, where
pure geomantic power meets with electricity. Employing
the receiver components as surreptitious radionic
instruments, we have found an astounding sequence of
corroborative facts in a singular theme.


[VC denotes VRIL COMPENDIUM -- All patents are
contained in the Compendium]

Ader, Clement. "Telegraphy", Patent 377,879 (February
14, 1888) [VC 3].

Anderson, Leland. "Tesla Lecture Before the New York
Academy of Sciences: April 1897."

Appleton (and Barnett). "Signal Deviation in
Transmission", Proceedings Royal Society 109 A, p.
621, 1925.

Appleton, Dr. E. V. "Shortwave Signals", Proceedings
Cambridge Philosophical Society 23, p. 155, 1926.

— "Retardation of Short Wave Signals", Wheatstone
Laboratory, Nature 122, 8 December 1928

Austin, L. W. "Radiotelegraphy", Bureau of Standards,
Journal Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol 16, pp
398-410: August 1926.

— "Radiotelegraphy", Bureau of Standards, Journal
Washington Academy

of Sciences, Vol 16, pp. 457-460: October 1926.

Braun, Ferdinand. "Signals Over Surfaces", Patent
750.429, (January 26, 1904) [VC 8 Ground Radio].

Baigorri. "The Rain Wizard", Jorge Resines
(Translator), Borderlands, No. 4, 1993.

Bain, Alexander (with R. Smith). "Automatic
Telegraph", Patent 6837 (October 30, 1849).

Bear, Simeon. "Telegraphic Circuit", Patent 192,856
(July 10, 1877).

Breit (and Tuve). "Signals And Transmission Paths",
Physical Review 28, p. 554, 1926.

Brown, John. "Magneto-Electric Signalling Apparatus",
Patent 238,212 (March 1, 1881).

Bryan, James C. "Earth Battery", Patent 160,152
(February 23, 1875).

Cerpaux, Jules. "Electric Piles", Patent 182,802
(October 3, 1876).

Charpentier, Louis. The Mystery Of Chartres Cathedral,
Avon Books, New York, 1975.

Crosse, Andrew. "Andrew Crosse", Scientific American,
December 18, 1869, p. 386.

— "The Morley-Martin Experiments", "Crosse’s Acari",
p. 18-21, Borderland Sciences Research Foundation
Reprint, 1986.

— "Crosse’s Acari", Borderlands, p. 32, Number 3,

Dieckmann, George F. "Electric Earth Battery", Patent
329,724 (November 3, 1885).

Dolbear, Dr. Amos. "Mode of Electric Communication",
Patent 350.299, (October 5, 1886). [Dolbear newspaper
articles in VC 7 Dendritic Ground Systems]

Dollard, Eric. "Dielectric and Magnetic Discharges",
Borderlands Publications, 1985

— "Generalized Electric Wave", Borderlands
Publications, 1986

— "Tesla Transformers", Borderlands Publications, 1985

— "Theory of Wireless Power", Borderlands
Publications, 1986

— "Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity", Borderland
Sciences Video, 1985

Farmer, Moses. "Method of Sending And Receiving
Messages Simultaneously Over the Same Wire", Patent
6,296, (February 16, 1875).

Frow, William. "Means For Transmission of
Intelligence", Patent 1,016,003 (June 30, 1912).

Heising, Raymond. "Directive Radio Transmissive
System", Patent 1,562,961 (November 24, 1925).

— "Oscillation Generator", Patent 1,240,206 (September
18, 1917). [VC 11 ELF Devices]

Highton, Henry. "Telegraphing Long Distances", London
Society of Arts, 1872, [Biographic Sketch from
Pioneers of Wireless, Ellison Hawks], [VC 8 Ground

Hollingworth. "Longwave Signals", Proceedings
Institute of Electrical Engineers 64, p. 579, 1926.

Littlefield, Charles W. "Bio-Genesis" (extract from
"The Beginning And Way of Life", 1919), Borderland
Sciences Research Foundation Reprint, 1986.

Lockwood, Robert and William. "Transmitter For
Telephones", Patent 239,519 (March 29, 1881).

Loomis, Mahlon. "Improvements In Telegraphing", Patent
129,971 (July 30, 1872) [Personal Papers and Drawings,
Government Documentation, Historical accounts], [VC 7
Dendritic Ground Systems]

Lugo, Orazio. "Electric Telegraphs" Patent 235,159 (7
December 1880).

Marconi, Marquese Guglielmo. "Directional Radiation of
Waves", Proceedings Royal Society, March 1906. [VC 10
Ray Transmitters]

— "Transmitting Electrical Signals", Patent 586,193
(July 13, 1897). [Biography], [VC 9 Aerial Radio]

— "Variations of VLF Signals", Proceedings Royal
Society, Volume 77, June 1906.

Meissner, Alexander. "Oscillations By Shock
Excitation", Patent 1,007,733 (November 4, 1913). [VC
9 Aerial Radio]

— "Directional Antenna System", Patent 1,740,950
(December 24, 1929). [VC 11 ELF Devices]

Mellon, John. "Electro-Therapeutic Appliance", Patent
412,196 (October 1, 1889).

Morley-Martin. "The Morley-Martin Experiments",
Borderland Sciences Research Foundation Reprint, 1986.

Morse, Samuel. "Conducting Power and Galvanic Power of
The Earth", Silliman’s Journal, Volume 35, 1839, pp.

— "Mode of Crossing Broad Rivers", Dr. Morse, Letter
to House of Representatives, 23 December 1824. [all
accounts collected in VC 2 Telegraphy]

Muirhead, John. "Condensing Resistance for Electric
Telegraphs", Patent 208,665 (October 1, 1878).

Murgas, Fr. Josef. "Constructing Antennas", Patent
860,051 (July 16, 1907).

— "Wireless Telegraphy", Patent 915,993 (March 23
,1909). [Biography and Patents], [VC 8 Ground Radio]

— "Ground Telegraphy in War", H. Gernsback, Electrical

— "Radiation And Reception With Buried Antenna", IEEE
AP-11, Number 3, pp. 207-218 (Relates Murgas to

— "Subsurface Radio Propagation Experiments", Tsao and
deBettencourt, Raytheon Company, 1965, [VC 11 Military

Musits, Sigmund. "Apparatus For Wireless Telegraphy",
Patent 777,216 (December 13 , 1904). [VC 8 Ground

Preece, Sir William. "Recent Progress In Telephony",
British Association Reports, 1882.

— "Electrical Induction Between Wires", British
Association Reports, 1886.

— "Signalling Through Space Without Wires", Proc.
Royal Inst. London, 1897.

— "Aetheric Telegraphy", Society of Arts, 3 May 1899.

— "Aetheric Telegraphy", Inst. Electrical Engineers,
22 December 1898.

— "Aetheric Wireless Telegraphy", Proc. Inst.
Electrical Engineers London, 1898. [Collections VC 8
Ground Radio], [Collections VC 9 Aerial Radio]

Prentice, Frank Wyatt. "Wireless Train Control
System", Patent 843,550.

— "Electrical Power Accumulators", Certified
description (Private publication September 18, 1923),
will be available through BSRF.

Quack. "Zeitschrifft fur Hochfrequenztechnik" 30 (2),
p. 41, 1928.

Rogers, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley A. Harris. "Radiology In
The Field Of Mineral Deposits", Journal of The
Electronic Research Association, Missouri, 1932 [VC

Rogers, James Harris. "America’s Greatest War
Invention", H. W. Secor, Electrical Experimenter,

— "Ground Wires and Shortwaves", Lieut. Comm. H. A.
Taylor, Proceedings Institute Radio Engineers, Vol. 7
(4), 1919.

— "Longwaves and Strays on Rogers Antennae", Lieut.
Comm. A. H. Taylor, Electrical Experimenter, 1920.

— "Radiosignaling System", Patent 1,303,730 (May 13,

— "Submarine Signaling System", Patent 1,395,454
(November 4, 1921).

— "Submarine Wireless", P. R. Coursey, Wireless World,
27 November 1920.

— "The Rogers Underground Aerial for Amateurs", J. H.
Rogers, Electrical Experimenter, 1920.

— "Underground Wireless System", Electrical
Experimenter, March 1919. [Patent Collection], [VC 8
Ground Radio]


— "Earth Conduction Experiments", H. W. Dodge.

— "Finding Mines By Radio", Popular Radio, September
1924, pp. 238-245.

— "Grounding System For New High Power Stations", The
Marconigraph, September 1919, pp. 548-549.

— "Subterranean and Submarine Antennas", A. H. Taylor,
Institute Radio Engineers, August 1919.

— "Underground Radio Telegraph", S. R. Winters,
Popular Radio, May 1924, pp. 490-492. [Articles in VC
8 Ground Radio]

— "ELF Propagation Measurements Along A 4900 Kilometer
Path", L. Ginsberg, IEEE, December 1973.

— "Wisconsin Test Facility", Bannister et al, IEEE,
December 1973. [SANGUINE Article Collection in VC 11
ELF Devices]

Smith, Gerritt. "Duplex Telegraph", Patent 238,448
(March 1, 1881).

Snow, William. "Earth Batteries for Generating
Electricity", Patent 155,209 (September 22, 1874).

Steinheil, C. A. "On Telegraphy and Galvanic Craft",
Munich, 1898. (Steinheil account taken from) History
of Wireless Telegraphy, Fahy. [all accounts VC 2

Strong, Henry. "Relay Telephones", Patent 235,658
(December 21, 1880).

Squier, George. "Tree Telephony and Telegraphy",
Patent 1,549,032 (August 11, 1925).

— "Tree Telephony and Telegraphy", Journal of The
Franklin Institute, June 1919.

— "Talking Through The Trees", Electrical
Experimenter, 1919.

Stubblefield, Nathan. "Electrical Battery", Patent
600,457, (March 8, 1898).

— "Stubblefield Personal Papers, Patents", [VC 4

— "Earth Batteries" [Patent Collection VC 4

Taylor, Herbert (with Muirhead, Alexander).
"Telegraphic Accumulators and Condensers", Patent
206,366 (July 23, 1878).


— "Abnormal Earth Currents", Grandy, Electrical
Engineer, June 1892

— "Auroral Disturbances", Nature, 29 April 1886

— "Earth Currents", B. Grandy, Electrical Engineer,
March 1893

— "Earth Currents", W. Finn, Electrical Engineer,
November 1892

— "Earth Currents", W. H. Preece, Nature, April 1894

— "On The Electrical Currents Of The Earth", Mateucci,
Smithsonian Institute. VC 1 White Ray Conductors]

— "How the Aurora Affects Telegraph Lines", H.
Gernsback, Electrical Experimenter, January 1918, [VC
1 White Ray Conductors].

— "Registering Apparatus for Earth Currents", Science,
June 1883.

— "Recent Observations on Earth Currents", Electrical
Engineer, August 1894.

— "Telegraphs, J. D. Caton, Scientific American,
September 1862

— "Terrestrial Electricity", Nature, 1874. [All above
taken from VC 1 White Ray Conductors]

Tesla, Nikola. "Transmitting Through Natural Mediums",
Patent 787,412 (April 18, 1905).

— "Transmitting Electrical Energy", Patent 1,119,732
(December 1, 1914).

Tomkins, Cornelius. "Telephone Relay", Patent 238,459
(March 1, 1881).

Trowbridge, John. "The Earth As A Conductor of
Electricity", American Academy of Sciences, 1880. [VC
9 Aerial Radio]

Vail, Alfred. [Diary Accounts: anomalous telegraphic
currents, VC 3]

Von Arco, Count Georg. "Aerial Conductor", Patent
959,100, (May 24, 1910), [VC 9 Aerial Radio].

— "Radiotelegraphic Station", Patent 1,082,221,
(December 23, 1913). [VC 8 Ground Radio].

White, Dr. G. S. Cosmo-ElectroCulture, Los Angeles,

— New Light On Therapeutic Energies, M. L. Gallert,
Borderland Sciences.

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